Quantitative Easing has destabilised the finances of pension plans and heightened the role of liquidity management

London, UK,

  • As quantitative easing reaches a point of diminishing returns, capital conservation and liquidity management have become paramount for Europe’s pension plans
  • Pension plans favour defensive equities, illiquid assets and emerging market assets
  • Portfolios are moving to low-cost options and negotiating lower fees for active funds

London, 2 December 2019 – As a crisis-era measure, Quantitative Easing (“QE”) has worked. But its unintended side effects have undermined the financial viability of pension investors, according to a new report published today by CREATE-Research and the largest European asset manager, Amundi.

The report surveyed 153 pension plans with €1.88 trillion assets under management and 38 pension consultants with €1.4 trillion assets under advisement. It highlights the effects of QE on pension plans so far and how their approaches are likely to change as QE evolves into its next round.

QE has created an era of enduring low yields, inflated asset prices and unsustainable deficits. Pension plans are therefore adapting to this radically new financial environment by changing their asset allocation approaches and their business models. Below we outline the key findings from this year’s survey.

QE has only worked as a crisis-era measure

There is no doubt that QE has delivered many benefits. Two thirds (67%) of respondents agree the stabilisation of financial markets after the Lehman collapse can be attributed to QE, and 58% cite that it has helped boost returns on risker assets. However, there are now strong concerns that QE is running out of steam in all the key regions where it has been undertaken since the crisis. According to one survey participant, “problems in Europe and Japan are structural. QE can’t fix them. It can only act like an anaesthetic before surgery.”

The overwhelming majority of respondents (nearly 80%) agree that QE has inexorably inflated global debt and sown the seeds of the next crisis. Two thirds of respondents agree that QE has overinflated pension liabilities via zero-bound interest rates, whilst half say governments have used QE as an excuse to backslide on growth-friendly supply-side reforms.

Capital preservation tops the agenda

Pension plans expect to go into the next recession with their finances weaker than ever - currently only one third (33%) have a positive cash flow and two fifth (40%) have a negative one. Accordingly, their risk appetite is diminishing, and capital preservation tops their agenda.  

Three avenues have been identified to help pension plans avoid suffering a major portfolio loss in falling markets and conserve their capital. The first seeks greater time alignment between asset allocation and the maturity profile of pension liabilities, as cited by nearly 9 in every 10 respondents. The second treats liquidity management as the primary risk management tool (62%) and the third is duration management (37%), with a focus on under-valued assets across the yield curve (37%).

Pension plans will favour global equities

Whilst QE lasts, the majority of respondents (58%) say they will favour equities. The asset class offers a defensive play, a good yield and reasonable total return at a time when pension plans are advancing in negative cash flow territory owing to ageing membership. Global equities, US equities, European equities and emerging market equities are preferred.

Periodic portfolio rebalancing will favour private market assets designed to deliver uncorrelated

absolute returns. Topping the list will be infrastructure (51%), real estate (46%), alternative credit (44%) and private equity (42%). Their recent superior returns are one factor. The other is their valuations which are not marked-to-market and therefore shield portfolios from the volatility seen in public markets.

According to another survey participant “infrastructure and real estate are good proxies for bonds”, highlighting the consensus that the risk-reward ratio offered by fixed income assets is perceived to be too risky, given the compressed credit curve and tighter spreads.

Pension plans are turning towards Emerging Market (EM) assets in order to capitalise on their long-term growth dynamics. Within the investment universe, EM equities are preferred (38%), followed closely by EM government bonds (36%) and EM investment-grade corporate bonds (33%).

Pension plans considering more low-cost options, raising share of passive funds

At a time when markets remain distorted, pension plans are taking the necessary steps to tackle implementation leakage: errors made by pension plans themselves in designing and implementing their portfolios that only become evident in hindsight.

Two thirds of respondents consider cost minimisation as a key source of outperformance. As such, they are raising the share of passive funds as a low-cost option in their core portfolio and negotiating lower fees for active funds.

As QE has side-lined much of the conventional investment wisdom, trustee boards are having to make big judgement calls without the normal navigational tools. Therefore, strong investment expertise on pension trustee boards (59%), a deep talent pool among professional staff (53%) and a nimble governance structure (44%) are seen as having a big impact on portfolio returns.


Professor Amin Rajan of CREATE-Research, who led the project, said: “Quantitative easing is currently at the point of diminishing returns and has undermined the finances of pension plans. So deeply is it now entrenched in investor psyche, QE will be very hard to unravel without huge market volatility.”

Pascal Blanqué, Group Chief Investment Officer at Amundi, highlights: “Pension plans are facing a host of challenges in this post-QE environment. As volatility rises and markets fall, liquidity management has become paramount, as has capital preservation for pension investors.

This document is intended solely for journalists and media professionals. The information is provided solely to enable journalists and media professionals to have an overview of the topic discussed, and whatever use they make, which is exclusively for independent editorial, Amundi assumes no responsibility. This material, is based on sources that Amundi considers to be reliable at the time of publication. Data, opinions and analysis may be changed without notice

For Professional Clients only. This document is being issued in the United Kingdom by Amundi (UK) Limited, 41 Lothbury, London EC2R 7HF, which is authorised and regulated by the Financial Conduct Authority (the “FCA”) under number 114503. This may be checked at and details about the extent of regulation by the FCA are available on request. This document is only directed at persons who are Professional Clients (as defined in the FCA’s Handbook of Rules and Guidance), must not be distributed to the public and must not be relied or acted upon by any other persons.

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About Amundi

About Amundi

Amundi, the leading European asset manager, ranking among the top 10 global players[1], offers its 100 million clients - retail, institutional and corporate - a complete range of savings and investment solutions in active and passive management, in traditional or real assets.

With its six international investment hubs[2], financial and extra-financial research capabilities and long-standing commitment to responsible investment, Amundi is a key player in the asset management landscape.

Amundi clients benefit from the expertise and advice of 5,400 employees in 35 countries. A subsidiary of the Crédit Agricole group and listed on the stock exchange, Amundi currently manages nearly €1.9 trillion of assets[3].

Amundi, a trusted partner, working every day in the interest of its clients and society



  1. ^ [1] Source: IPE “Top 500 Asset Managers” published in June 2022, based on assets under management as at 31/12/2021
  2. ^ [2] Boston, Dublin, London, Milan, Paris and Tokyo
  3. ^ [3] Amundi data as at 30/09/2022

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